Plants are essential to everyone's lives. Welcome to Plantlife.


27 IPAs have been identified in Montenegro and a conservation project developed at Cijevna Canyon IPA.

IPAs in montenegro

Montenegro covers an area of almost 14,000 km² and is bordered by Albania, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Kosovo and Serbia. It falls within Mediterranean and Alpine biogeographic zones. On a European scale Montenegro is believed to have the greatest number of vascular plants per unit area, and contains many national and Balkan endemics – Asperula, Campanula, Dianthus, Edrianathus and Ophrys are just a few of the important genera. The natural and semi-natural habitats include forest (oak, beech and coniferous), grasslands and the coastal habitats of the Adriatic Sea.

Komovi IPA in Montenegro is home to 14 threatened species and numerous Balkan endemics / Elizabeth Radford

The IPA project in Montenegro has been exceptionally well publicised and received a high level of positive public interest.

Montenegro has 27 IPAs, covering 708,606 hectares. There is good coincidence between the Montenegrin IPA network and the Emerald Network (designated under the Bern Convention) and 11 IPAs are protected either fully or partially. This, however, leaves nearly 60% of Montenegro’s IPAs unprotected. Other than National Parks, ‘protected areas’ in Montenegro do not have management plans or any regulation of potentially damaging activities.

Most IPAs in Montenegro are owned part by the state and part by private land owners. Tourism and recreation are the dominant land uses at 81% of sites and thus, unsurprisingly, development threatens 78%, with over half of the sites threatened specifically by tourist development. This is a particular problem on the coast. Forestry and mixed agriculture take place on almost half of Montenegrin IPAs and low level wild plant harvesting on one third. One third of sites are also threatened by deforestation and burning of vegetation. The mismanagement of water resources threatens five lake and coastal IPAs at an acute level.

Fact-sheets on the Montenegrin IPAs are available on the IPA Online Database.


  • PETROVI?, D. (Ed), 2009, Važna Biljne Staništa – U Crnoj Gori IPA projeket. Important Plant Areas in Montenegro. Green Forest, Montenegro.

Coordinating organization:

  • Zelena Gora (Green Forest)